What are all the CentOS repositories (directories) and what is each one for?

Contains packages required in order to build the main Distribution or packages produced by SRPMS built in the main Distribution, but not included in the main Red Hat package tree (mysql-server in CentOS-3.x falls into this category). Packages contained in the addons repository should be considered essentially a part of the core distribution, but may not be in the main Red Hat Package tree.
(CentOS-4 only) Contains all the apt RPMS for the CentOS site. This is where you would point if you want to use apt to do updates. Apt has issues with distros that use multiple libraries, so is only available for the i386 distro.
Packages contributed by CentOS Developers and the Users. These packages might replace rpm's included in the core Distribution. You should understand the implications of enabling and using packages from this repository.
Packages contributed by the CentOS Users, which do not overlap with any of the core Distribution packages. These packages have not been tested by the CentOS developers, and may not track upstream version releases very closely.
Contains manuals and release notes for CentOS
Packages built and maintained by the CentOS developers that add functionality to the core distribution. These packages have undergone some basic testing, should track upstream release versions fairly closely and will never replace any core distribution package.
Contains the ISOs for download. On the main CentOS mirror sites ISOs cannot be downloaded directly, but we provide a Bittorent file for downloading. On external public mirrors, ISOs may or may not be directly downloadable (at the discretion of the mirror owner).
Contains the base OS tree that is on the Main ISO files.
Contains updates released for the CentOS distro.
Contains updates from the next point-release which went through basic QA but have not yet been released as a new CentOS point release.
Contains RPMs with debugging symbols generated when the primary packages are built. No repo config is provided. These packages are found at http://debuginfo.centos.org/
This repository is a proving grounds for packages potentially on their way to CentOSPlus and CentOS Extras. They may or may not replace core CentOS packages, and are not guaranteed to function properly. These packages build and install, but are waiting for feedback from testers as to functionality and stability. Packages in this repository will come and go during the development period, so it should not be left enabled or used on production systems without due consideration. No repo config is provided by default. CentOS-Testing.repo can be put in /etc/yum.repos.d. Contribute to CentOS by reporting problems or successes on the CentOS Developer's list. Use with caution.
See the Repositories page for more information.

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